### Complexity Calisthenics (Part I)

Today I want to describe and recommend a paper I quite enjoyed: The Computational Complexity of Universal Hashing by Mansour, Nisan, and Tiwari (henceforth MNT). I think that this paper, while not overly demanding technically, is likely to stretch readers' brains in several interesting directions at once.

As a motivation, consider the following question, which has vexed some of us since the third grade: why is multiplication so hard?

The algorithm we learn in school takes time quadratic in the bit-length of the input numbers. This is far from optimal, and inspired work over the years has brought the running time ever-closer to the conjecturally-optimal n log n; Martin Furer published a breakthrough in STOC 2007, and there may have been improvements since then. But compare this with addition, which can easily be performed with linear time and logarithmic space (simultaneously). Could we hope for anything similar? (I don't believe that any of the fast multiplication algorithms run in sublinear space, although I could be mistaken. Here is Wiki's summary of existing algorithms for arithmetic.)

As MNT observe, the question is made especially interesting when we observed that multiplication could be just as easily achieved in linear time/logspace... if we were willing to accept a different representation for our integer inputs! Namely, if we're given the prime factorizations of the inputs, we simply add corresponding exponents to determine the product. There are two hitches, though: first, we'd have to accept the promise that the prime factorizations given really do involve primes (it's not at all clear that we'd have the time/space to check this, even with the recent advances in primality testing); second, and more germane to our discussion, addition just got much harder!

The situation is similar over finite fields of prime order (Z_p): in standard representation, addition is easy and multiplication is less so, while if we represent numbers as powers of a fixed primitive root, the reverse becomes true. This suggests a woeful but intriguing possibility: perhaps no matter how we represent numbers, one of the two operations must be computationally complex, even though we have latitude to 'trade off' between + and *. So we are invited to consider

Mental Stretch #1: Can we prove 'representation-independent' complexity lower bounds?

Stretch #2: Can we prove such lower bounds in the form of tradeoffs between two component problems, as seems necessary here?

In the setting of finite-field arithmetic, MNT answer 'yes' to both problems. The lower bounds they give, however, are not expressed simply in terms of time usage or space usage, but instead as the product of these two measures. Thus we have

Stretch #3: Prove 'time-space tradeoffs' for computational problems.

To be clear, all three of these 'stretches' had been made in various forms in work prior to MNT; I'm just using their paper as a good example.

The combination of these three elements certainly makes the task seem daunting. But MNT have convinced me, and I hope to suggest to you, that with the right ideas it's not so hard. As the paper title indicates, their point of departure is Universal Hashing (UH)--an algorithmic technique in which finite fields have already proved useful. Use upper bounds to prove lower bounds. We can call this another Stretch, or call it wisdom of the ages, but it deserves to be stated.

So what is UH? Fix a domain D and a range R. a (finite) family H of functions from D to R is called a Universal Hash Family (UHF) if the following holds:

For every pair of distinct elements d, d' in D,

and for every pair of (not necessarily distinct) elements r, r' in R,

if we pick a function h at random from H,

Prob[h(d) = r, h(d') = r' ] = 1/|R|^2.

In other words, the randomly chosen h behaves just like a truly random function from D to R when we restrict attention to any two domain elements. (In typical applications we hope to save time and randomness, since H may be much smaller than the space of all functions.)

Here is what MNT do: they prove that implementing any UHF necessitates a complexity lower bound in the form of a time-space product. (To 'implement' a UHF H is to compute the function f_H(h, x) = h(x).)

This is in fact the main message of the paper, but they obtain our desired application to + and * as a corollary, by citing the well known fact that, fixing a prime field Z_p = D = R,

H = {h_{a, b}(x) = a*x + b mod p}

is a UHF, where a, b range over all field elements. (Left as an easy exercise.)

Note the gain from this perspective: implementing a UHF is a 'representation-invariant' property of a function, so Stretch 1 becomes possible. Moreover, Stretch 2 now makes more sense: it is only jointly that + and * define a UHF, so whatever complexity measure M we lower-bound for UHFs implies only a tradeoff between + and *.

It remains only to sketch the proof of time-space tradeoffs for UHFs, which in fact is a manageable argument along classic lines (the basic form of the argument is attributed to earlier work by Borodin and Cook). The upshot for us will be that for any program computing (any representation of) f(a, b, x) = a*x + b over an n-digit prime modulus, if T denotes worst-case time usage and S worst-case space, T*S = Omega(n^2). Very nice! (Although what this actually implies about the larger of the individual time-space products of + and * under this representation is not clear to me at the moment.)

Let's adjourn for today... wouldn't want to pull a muscle.

As a motivation, consider the following question, which has vexed some of us since the third grade: why is multiplication so hard?

The algorithm we learn in school takes time quadratic in the bit-length of the input numbers. This is far from optimal, and inspired work over the years has brought the running time ever-closer to the conjecturally-optimal n log n; Martin Furer published a breakthrough in STOC 2007, and there may have been improvements since then. But compare this with addition, which can easily be performed with linear time and logarithmic space (simultaneously). Could we hope for anything similar? (I don't believe that any of the fast multiplication algorithms run in sublinear space, although I could be mistaken. Here is Wiki's summary of existing algorithms for arithmetic.)

As MNT observe, the question is made especially interesting when we observed that multiplication could be just as easily achieved in linear time/logspace... if we were willing to accept a different representation for our integer inputs! Namely, if we're given the prime factorizations of the inputs, we simply add corresponding exponents to determine the product. There are two hitches, though: first, we'd have to accept the promise that the prime factorizations given really do involve primes (it's not at all clear that we'd have the time/space to check this, even with the recent advances in primality testing); second, and more germane to our discussion, addition just got much harder!

The situation is similar over finite fields of prime order (Z_p): in standard representation, addition is easy and multiplication is less so, while if we represent numbers as powers of a fixed primitive root, the reverse becomes true. This suggests a woeful but intriguing possibility: perhaps no matter how we represent numbers, one of the two operations must be computationally complex, even though we have latitude to 'trade off' between + and *. So we are invited to consider

Mental Stretch #1: Can we prove 'representation-independent' complexity lower bounds?

Stretch #2: Can we prove such lower bounds in the form of tradeoffs between two component problems, as seems necessary here?

In the setting of finite-field arithmetic, MNT answer 'yes' to both problems. The lower bounds they give, however, are not expressed simply in terms of time usage or space usage, but instead as the product of these two measures. Thus we have

Stretch #3: Prove 'time-space tradeoffs' for computational problems.

To be clear, all three of these 'stretches' had been made in various forms in work prior to MNT; I'm just using their paper as a good example.

The combination of these three elements certainly makes the task seem daunting. But MNT have convinced me, and I hope to suggest to you, that with the right ideas it's not so hard. As the paper title indicates, their point of departure is Universal Hashing (UH)--an algorithmic technique in which finite fields have already proved useful. Use upper bounds to prove lower bounds. We can call this another Stretch, or call it wisdom of the ages, but it deserves to be stated.

So what is UH? Fix a domain D and a range R. a (finite) family H of functions from D to R is called a Universal Hash Family (UHF) if the following holds:

For every pair of distinct elements d, d' in D,

and for every pair of (not necessarily distinct) elements r, r' in R,

if we pick a function h at random from H,

Prob[h(d) = r, h(d') = r' ] = 1/|R|^2.

In other words, the randomly chosen h behaves just like a truly random function from D to R when we restrict attention to any two domain elements. (In typical applications we hope to save time and randomness, since H may be much smaller than the space of all functions.)

Here is what MNT do: they prove that implementing any UHF necessitates a complexity lower bound in the form of a time-space product. (To 'implement' a UHF H is to compute the function f_H(h, x) = h(x).)

This is in fact the main message of the paper, but they obtain our desired application to + and * as a corollary, by citing the well known fact that, fixing a prime field Z_p = D = R,

H = {h_{a, b}(x) = a*x + b mod p}

is a UHF, where a, b range over all field elements. (Left as an easy exercise.)

Note the gain from this perspective: implementing a UHF is a 'representation-invariant' property of a function, so Stretch 1 becomes possible. Moreover, Stretch 2 now makes more sense: it is only jointly that + and * define a UHF, so whatever complexity measure M we lower-bound for UHFs implies only a tradeoff between + and *.

It remains only to sketch the proof of time-space tradeoffs for UHFs, which in fact is a manageable argument along classic lines (the basic form of the argument is attributed to earlier work by Borodin and Cook). The upshot for us will be that for any program computing (any representation of) f(a, b, x) = a*x + b over an n-digit prime modulus, if T denotes worst-case time usage and S worst-case space, T*S = Omega(n^2). Very nice! (Although what this actually implies about the larger of the individual time-space products of + and * under this representation is not clear to me at the moment.)

Let's adjourn for today... wouldn't want to pull a muscle.

Labels: complexity

## 4 Comments:

Good stuff, Andy.

I'm intrigued by how the theory of pseudorandomness "mediates" between traditional mathematics (algebra, in this case) and computational complexity. In the present case, the pseudo-random properties of algebraic operations (which are easy to show) are used to understand their intrinsic computational complexity. For the reverse direction, I was thinking about the application of theorems of Bourgain-Katz-Tao, Konyagin, Bourgain etc. (involving a similar plus-times tradeoff) in recent works on multi-source randomness extractors. Here, the pseudo-random properties are hard to prove, and they have applications, for eg., to extracting randomness from samplable distributions... Of course, the numerous applications of hashing in complexity provide even better evidence.

By Rahul, at 11:04 PM

I wrote a paper examining whether there is no best algorithm for multiplication. It does not answer the question, but shows that answering it would imply P\neq NP. Also, two provable properties of multiplication might speculatively be related: (1) the Presburger arithmetic plus multiplication is an undecidable theory (Peano arithmetic) and (2) there is a gap between the monotone and nonmonotone complexity of boolean convolution.

Hunter Monroe

See http://www.eatcs.org/bulletin/beatcs94.pdf page 220.

By Anonymous, at 5:07 PM

Thanks, Hunter! I'll take a look.

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